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53, 79–92. (2015). In contrast, the appraisal and coping flexibility component measured more complex processes related to changes of appraisals (e.g., approaching a situation from multiple perspectives, and regulating emotions through reappraisal processes) and the generation of a broad range of coping strategies. Ann. Cognitive control and attentional functions. The SAM (Peacock and Wong, 1990) was used to assess perceived stressfulness of the task, where higher scores represent greater perceived stressfulness (α = 0.81). Trends Cogn. Beck, A. T., Rush, A. J., Shaw, B. F., and Emery, G. (1979). In sum, the two-factor model with the four residual correlations provided the best absolute fit and relative fit to the data. (2017). Emotion regulation in depression: relation to cognitive inhibition. Zaehringer, J., Falquez, R., Schubert, A. L., Nees, F., and Barnow, S. (2018). Bull. A parallel analysis (Zwick and Velicer, 1986), in which the actual eigenvalues were compared to average eigenvalues derived from a series of randomly generated data sets (in this case 5000 samples), further supported the presence of two factors. Dennis, J. P., & Vander Wal, J. S. (2010). Laboratory sessions were conducted between 1300 and 1730 h to minimize the contribution of circadian factors to the cortisol responses. (2017). “Some ways in which positive affect influences decision making and problem solving,” in Handbook of Emotions, eds M. Lewis, J. M. Haviland-Jones, and L. F. Barrett (New York, NY: Guilford Press), 548–573. Beta-adrenergic modulation of cognitive flexibility during stress. In the present study, diminished appraisal and coping flexibility were accompanied by negative stressor appraisals, lower reappraisal in the context of emotion regulation, the endorsement of ineffective and inflexible coping, and heightened depressive symptoms. The Wisconsin Card Sorting Test and the cognitive assessment of prefrontal executive functions: a critical update. doi: 10.1162/jocn_a_01029, Gotlib, I. H., and Joormann, J. Relationship between the CCFQ, stressor appraisals, coping style, and symptoms of depression. Cognitive inflexibility and over-attention to detail: The Italian validation of the DFlex Questionnaire in patients with eating disorders. Pearson correlation coefficients were used to examine the relationship between CCFQ subscale scores, stressor appraisals, coping and depressive symptoms. Brain Imaging Behav. The Cognitive Flexibility Inventory (CFI; Dennis and Vander Wal, 2010) is a 20-item measure that assesses two aspects of cognitive flexibility: (1) the ability to perceive multiple alternative explanations for life occurrences and to generate multiple alternative solutions to difficult situations (alternatives), (2) and the tendency to perceive difficult situations as controllable (control). Participants were recruited to participate in a survey called “Coping with Stress” using websites, such as Facebook, Kijiji and Craig’s List, and through word of mouth. Introduction to Mediation, Moderation, and Conditional Process Analysis: A Regression-based Approach, 2nd Edn. 39, 979–987. Psychol. Brain Cogn. Items were selected from reviewing existing measures of belief and cognitive flexibility and through expert consultation. J. The editor and reviewers' affiliations are the latest provided on their Loop research profiles and may not reflect their situation at the time of review. The Stress Appraisal Measure (SAM; Peacock and Wong, 1990) assessed several appraisal dimensions in response to the academic stressor including, perceptions of threat, challenge, centrality, control-by-self, control-by-others, and uncontrollable-by-anyone. To our knowledge, there are current no self-report measures which directly assess cognitive control in stressful situations. (2012). At the same time, this questionnaire provides unique predictive utility for understanding depressive symptoms, beyond that of other measures. and 5000 bootstrap samples. (2011). From a clinical perspective, cognitive flexibility has been described as the ability to change one’s maladaptive attitudes and beliefs with more appropriate ones (Dennis and Vander Wal, 2010), and disturbances of cognitive control were proposed to underpin the use of ineffective emotional regulation strategies, including excessive rumination (Koster et al., 2011). Although mental defeat and cognitive flexibility did not reach the level of the healthy control group, they demonstrated improvement. Although it can be argued that the Perseverative Thinking Questionnaire (PTQ; Ehring et al., 2011) and the Ruminative Response Scale (RRS; Treynor et al., 2003) measure products of reduced cognitive control, these questionnaires were not designed to be specific to stressor contexts. That is, cross-loadings are freely estimated in the ESEM model akin to how cross-loadings are estimated in exploratory factor analysis. It is important to mention that the CCFQ measures qualitatively distinct features to that of the SAM and SCOPE. In line with the data presented in Table 2, the CCFQ was no longer linked to reflective coping and expressive suppression (Table 3). doi: 10.1023/A:1023910315561, Trivedi, M. H., and Greer, T. L. (2014). doi: 10.1016/0028-3932(89)90128-0, Ehring, T., Zetsche, U., Weidacker, K., Wahl, K., Schönfeld, S., and Ehlers, A. Med. Responses ranged on a six-point scale from 0 (not at all) to 6 (extremely), with higher scores indicating greater intensity of negative affect (α = 0.89). Cognitive control and (cognitive) flexibility play a fundamental role in the ability to adapt to continuously changing environments and have been associated with various goal-oriented behaviors, including creativity, problem-solving, multi-tasking, and decision-making (Rolls, 2000; Ionescu, 2012; Dajani and Uddin, 2015). Generally, in stressful situations … (specific question follows here)”. As shown in Table 7, although the appraisal and coping flexibility component of the CCFQ was related to multiple stressor appraisals, the relation between the appraisal and coping flexibility and depressive symptoms was uniquely mediated by threat appraisal. Clin. In addition to the preliminary version of the CCFQ, participants completed several validation measures, comprising the Cognitive Flexibility Inventory, Coping Flexibility Questionnaire, Emotion Regulation Questionnaire, Ruminative Response Scale, and Perseverative Thinking Questionnaire and their relations to current depressive symptoms. Res. Cognitive control can be expressed through directing attention toward information that is relevant to situation (or goal), while inhibiting that which is not relevant. A., Wager, T. D., Weber, J., and Ochsner, K. N. (2015). Res. This inventory measures several important features of cognitive flexibility that might be relevant to depressive disorders. If it changes it must be a process: study of emotion and coping during three stages of a college examination. Brain Sei. As shown in Table 6, individuals who reported greater levels of cognitive control and flexibility on the CCFQ tended to appraise a personally meaningful academic challenge more positively. District 1 was randomly selected as the sample area and 211 women in this district were selected using systematic sampling method. An individual might arrive at an appraisal relatively rapidly, or with little consideration for the context of the situation. The effects of acute stress on core executive functions: a meta-analysis and comparison with cortisol. Individ. The internal reliability of each appraisal dimension was: threat (α = 0.71), challenge (α = 0.65), centrality (α = 0.84), control-by-self (α = 0.85), control-by-others (α = 0.89), and uncontrollable-by-anyone (α = 0.71). (1989). Self-reported ethnic identities included Caucasian (72.8%, n = 220), Asian (11.9%, n = 36), South Asian (5.0%, n = 15), Black (2.0%, n = 6), Arab (2.0%, n = 6), Aboriginal (1.3%, n = 4), Hispanic (1.0%, n = 3), South East Asian, (1.0%, n = 3), and other (e.g., mixed ethnicity, 2.6%, n = 8). doi: 10.1162/NETN_a_00010. doi: 10.1002/jnr.23904, Morton, J. Thus, the lack of test-retest reliability of the CCFQ is an important limitation of the present study. Affect. Hayes, A. F. (2017). doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2017.09.052, Kirschbaum, C., Kudielka, B. M., Gaab, J., Schommer, N. C., and Hellhammer, D. H. (1999). Psychol. Behav. doi: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2010.05.005, Dajani, D. R., and Uddin, L. Q. 38, 571–578. (1961). Responses to all questions tend to … 123, 45–54. Ther. Res. TABLE 1. New York, NY: Springer Publishing Co. Liston, C., McEwen, B. S., and Casey, B. J. Aging Neurosci. The purpose of the present research was to explore ways in which cognitive control and cognitive flexibility might be expressed in stressful situations that are not readily captured through behavioral tasks. 41, 1015–1026. By contrast, among individuals with high cognitive control over emotion, the TSST and control condition provoked equally low levels of negative affect (b = 5.18, SE = 3.40, p = 0.14). doi: 10.1016/j.neuroscience.2016.06.013, Peacock, E. J., and Wong, P. T. (1990). Statements: 36 Duration: 10–15 minutes Type: screening tool Authors: Peg Dawson & Richard Guare It is important to mention that although the CCFQ was designed to assess relatively stable individual characteristics, we have yet to test the stability of this measure over time. Cognitive inflexibility among ruminators and nonruminators. Adv. Addict. doi: 10.1093/scan/nsu016, Simmonds, D. J., Pekar, J. J., and Mostofsky, S. H. (2008). The 21-item BDI (Beck et al., 1961) was again used to assess the intensity of depressive symptoms (α = 0.92). Self-reported ethnicity included Caucasian (70.9%, n = 261), Asian (6.8%, n = 25), Black (6.0%, n = 22), Arab (5.2%, n = 19), South Asian (4.1%, n = 15), Hispanic (2.2%, n = 8), South East Asian (1.6%, n = 6), Aboriginal (0.3%, n = 1), and other (e.g., mixed ethnicity, 3.0%, n = 11). doi: 10.1016/S1364-6613(03)00028-7, Moore, A., and Malinowski, P. (2009). The present research examined how cognitive control and cognitive flexibility might be expressed in stressful situations and the processes through which reductions in these abilities might be linked to elevated depressive symptoms. inventory, morningness-eveningness questionnaire and short form of cognitive emotion regulation questionnaire. Click Here: What permission is there: 3 Application Required: Further Notes: Previous copyright holders Ammons Scientific have been acquired by Sage Journals. Control and flexibility were operationalized through statements reflecting shifting, inhibition, updating, including “shifting my attention,” “ignoring,” “setting aside,” “generating multiple …”, “thinking of several ways …”, “reframing,” and “re-evaluating.”. The hypothesized model provided a marginal fit to the data, χ2 (112) = 223.693, p < 0.0001, CFI = 0.958, and RMSEA = 0.052. Rev. doi: 10.3758/BF03213923, Compton, R. J., Hofheimer, J., and Kazinka, R. (2013). We also examined whether a more complex three-factor model (that also includes a method factor for the negatively worded items) provides a better fit to the data relative to the hypothesized two-factor model (that also includes the method factor for the negatively worded items). A PCA with Promax rotation was conducted to determine whether the factor structure of the final (18-item) CCFQ observed in the student sample matched that of a community sample. (2014). In Study 2 (N = 368), lower scores on the CCFQ were related to more negative stressor appraisals (i.e., greater perceived threat and uncontrollability) of a personally meaningful stressful event. From this perspective, distinguishing components of cognitive control as well as cognitive flexibility through both behavioral tasks and self-report measures, might offer clues regarding effective clinical treatment approaches (e.g., personalized/precision treatment) for depressive pathologies. TABLE 5. (2016). The χ2 test of model fit, comparative fit index (CFI), and root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA) were used to adjudicate fit in the ESEM analyses. This study was carried out in accordance with the recommendations of Carleton University Ethics Committee for Psychological Research. J. Abnorm. Multiple mediations analyses examining the direct and indirect effects of CCFQ subscale scores on depressive symptoms through stressor appraisals and coping style. Front. To this end, the CCFQ was developed was developed to assess an individual’s perceived levels of cognitive control and flexibility that were displayed through three stress-related processes, including attention, appraisals and reappraisals, and coping. Instead, these analyses were used to determine whether stressor appraisals, coping strategies, or both accounted for a significant proportion of the variance in the relation CCFQ subscale scores and depressive symptoms. Neuroscience 345, 193–202. Intelligence and cognitive flexibility: fluid intelligence correlates with feature “unbinding” across perception and action. The neurobiology of emotion–cognition interactions: fundamental questions and strategies for future research. When a potentially stressful situation is first encountered, appraisals are made concerning the extent to which the potential stressor poses a threat and whether the individual has the necessary resources to cope with the experience (Lazarus, 1999; Folkman, 2013). J. Comput. As shown in Table 2, the appraisal and coping flexibility component of the CCFQ was most strongly associated with the alternatives facet of the Cognitive Flexibility Inventory. Partial correlations were also used to assess the strength of relation between components of the CCFQ and depressive symptoms, after controlling each validation measure. Stress 13, 435–443. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms. How does cognitive therapy work? Cognitive flexibility and decision-making in eating disorders and obesity. Neuropsychobiology 28, 76–81. The SAM and SCOPE assess the ‘content’ of an appraisal (e.g., levels of threat or control) or a coping strategy (i.e., frequency of endorsing emotional expression), respectively. As previously described, these features of cognitive control and flexibility were proposed to be expressed through three core processes: attention and attentional control, appraisals and reappraisals, and coping selection and flexibility. RG, KM, and HA contributed to the conception and study design, and all authors contributed to the interpretation, drafting, revising, and final approval of the present manuscript. As shown in Table 3, the cognitive control over emotion component of the CCFQ remained strongly associated with cognitive reappraisal, perseverative thinking, and rumination, and the appraisal and coping flexibility component was still highly related to coping versatility. Using the scale below, indicate the extent to which agree or disagree with the following statements. Specifically, whereas the control subscale of the Cognitive Flexibility Inventory assesses perceived controllability over difficult situations, the cognitive control over emotions component of the CCFQ measures the extent to which an individual can exert control of negative thoughts and emotions. Furthermore, examination of the unrotated loadings suggested that factors 3 to 7 were not major components as they had fewer than 3 items with substantial (>0.40) factor loadings (see Supplementary Table 1). 13, 152–163. 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